Artifical Intelligence is traditionally associated with controlling agents, such as robots. On the one hand, my research has introduced novel evolutionary methods for robot control (e.g. to ambulate or solve a maze). On the other hand, my work includes gameplaying agents that play games to win or to express idiosynchratic desires.
Abstract: This paper introduces a paradigm shift by viewing the task of affect modeling as a reinforcement learning (RL) process. According to the proposed paradigm, RL agents learn a policy (i.e. affective interaction) by attempting to maximize a set of rewards (i.e. behavioral and affective patterns) via their experience with their environment (i.e. context). Our hypothesis is that RL is an effective paradigm for interweaving affect elicitation and manifestation with behavioral and affective demonstrations. Importantly, our second hypothesis - building on Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis - is that emotion can be the facilitator of decision-making. We test our hypotheses in a racing game by training Go-Blend agents to model human demonstrations of arousal and behavior; Go-Blend is a modified version of the Go-Explore algorithm which has recently showcased supreme performance in hard exploration tasks. We first vary the arousal-based reward function and observe agents that can effectively display a palette of affect and behavioral patterns according to the specified reward. Then we use arousal-based state selection mechanisms in order to bias the strategies that Go-Blend explores. Our findings suggest that Go-Blend not only is an efficient affect modeling paradigm but, more importantly, affect-driven RL improves exploration and yields higher performing agents, validating Damasio's hypothesis in the domain of games.
in Proceedings of the International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, 2022. BibTex
Abstract: Using artificial intelligence (AI) to automatically test a game remains a critical challenge for the development of richer and more complex game worlds and for the advancement of AI at large. One of the most promising methods for achieving that long-standing goal is the use of generative AI agents, namely procedural personas, that attempt to imitate particular playing behaviors which are represented as rules, rewards, or human demonstrations. All research efforts for building those generative agents, however, have focused solely on playing behavior which is arguably a narrow perspective of what a player actually does in a game. Motivated by this gap in the existing state of the art, in this paper we extend the notion of behavioral procedural personas to cater for player experience, thus examining generative agents that can both behave and experience their game as humans would. For that purpose, we employ the Go-Explore reinforcement learning paradigm for training human-like procedural personas, and we test our method on behavior and experience demonstrations of more than 100 players of a racing game. Our findings suggest that the generated agents exhibit distinctive play styles and experience responses of the human personas they were designed to imitate. Importantly, it also appears that experience, which is tied to playing behavior, can be a highly informative driver for better behavioral exploration.
in Proceedings of the Foundations on Digital Games Conference, 2022. BibTex
Abstract: Video game testing has become a major investment of time, labor and expense in the game industry. Particularly the balancing of in-game units, characters and classes can cause long-lasting issues that persist years after a game's launch. While approaches incorporating artificial intelligence have already shown successes in reducing manual effort and enhancing game development processes, most of these draw on heuristic, generalized or optimal behavior routines, while actual low-level decisions from individual players and their resulting playing styles are rarely considered. In this paper, we apply Deep Player Behavior Modeling to turn atomic actions of 213 players from 6 months of single-player instances within the MMORPG Aion into generative models that capture and reproduce particular playing strategies. In a subsequent simulation, the resulting generative agents ("replicants") were tested against common NPC opponent types of MMORPGs that iteratively increased in difficulty, respective to the primary factor that constitutes this enemy type (Melee, Ranged, Rogue, Buffer, Debuffer, Healer, Tank or Group). As a result, imbalances between classes as well as strengths and weaknesses regarding particular combat challenges could be identified and regulated automatically.
in IEEE Transactions on Games, 2022. (accepted) BibTex
Abstract: This paper proposes a paradigm shift for affective computing by viewing the affect modeling task as a reinforcement learning process. According to our proposed framework the context (environment) and the actions of an agent define the common representation that interweaves behavior and affect. To realise this framework we build on recent advances in reinforcement learning and use a modified version of the Go-Explore algorithm which has showcased supreme performance in hard exploration tasks. In this initial study, we test our framework in an arcade game by training Go-Explore agents to both play optimally and attempt to mimic human demonstrations of arousal. We vary the degree of importance between optimal play and arousal imitation and create agents that can effectively display a palette of affect and behavioral patterns. Our Go-Explore implementation not only introduces a new paradigm for affect modeling; it empowers believable AI-based game testing by providing agents that can blend and express a multitude of behavioral and affective patterns.
in Proceedings of the ACII Workshop on What's Next in Affect Modeling?, 2021. BibTex
Abstract: Competitive board games have provided a rich and diverse testbed for artificial intelligence. This paper contends that collaborative board games pose a different challenge to artificial intelligence as it must balance short-term risk mitigation with long-term winning strategies. Collaborative board games task all players to coordinate their different powers or pool their resources to overcome an escalating challenge posed by the board and a stochastic ruleset. This paper focuses on the exemplary collaborative board game Pandemic and presents a rolling horizon evolutionary algorithm designed specifically for this game. The complex way in which the Pandemic game state changes in a stochastic but predictable way required a number of specially designed forward models, macro-action representations for decision-making, and repair functions for the genetic operations of the evolutionary algorithm. Variants of the algorithm which explore optimistic versus pessimistic game state evaluations, different mutation rates and event horizons are compared against a baseline hierarchical policy agent. Results show that an evolutionary approach via short-horizon rollouts can better account for the future dangers that the board may introduce, and guard against them. Results highlight the types of challenges that collaborative board games pose to artificial intelligence, especially for handling multi-player collaboration interactions.
in IEEE Transactions on Games 14(3), 2021. BibTex
Abstract: While artificial intelligence has been applied to control players' decisions in board games for over half a century, little attention is given to games with no player competition. Pandemic is an exemplar collaborative board game where all players coordinate to overcome challenges posed by events occurring during the game's progression. This paper proposes an artificial agent which controls all players' actions and balances chances of winning versus risk of losing in this highly stochastic environment. The agent applies a Rolling Horizon Evolutionary Algorithm on an abstraction of the game-state that lowers the branching factor and simulates the game's stochasticity. Results show that the proposed algorithm can find winning strategies more consistently in different games of varying difficulty. The impact of a number of state evaluation metrics is explored, balancing between optimistic strategies that favor winning and pessimistic strategies that guard against losing.
in Proceedings of the Foundations of Digital Games Conference, 2020. BibTex
Abstract: Balancing the options available to players in a way that ensures rich variety and viability is a vital factor for the success of any video game, and particularly competitive multiplayer games. Traditionally, this balancing act requires extensive periods of expert analysis, play testing and debates. While automated gameplay is able to predict outcomes of parameter changes, current approaches mainly rely on heuristic or optimal strategies to generate agent behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of deep player behavior models to represent a player population (n = 213) of the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Aion, which are used, in turn, to generate individual agent behaviors. Results demonstrate significant balance differences in opposing enemy encounters and show how these can be regulated. Moreover, the analytic methods proposed are applied to identify the balance relationships between classes when fighting against each other, reflecting the original developers' design.
in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Games, 2020. BibTex
Abstract: Quality-diversity algorithms focus on discovering multiple diverse and high-performing solutions. MAP-elites is such an algorithm, as it partitions the solution space into bins and searches for the best solution possible for each bin. In this paper, multi-behavior variants of MAP-Elites are tested where the MAP-Elites grid partitions the solution space based on a certain dimension, while selection is guided by measures of diversity on another dimension. Four divergent search algorithms are tested for this selection process, targeting novelty or surprise or their combination, and their performance on a soft robot evolution task is discussed.
in Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 2019. BibTex
Abstract: Quality diversity is a recent family of evolutionary search algorithms which focus on finding several well-performing (quality) yet different (diversity) solutions with the aim to maintain an appropriate balance between divergence and convergence during search. While quality diversity has already delivered promising results in complex problems, the capacity of divergent search variants for quality diversity remains largely unexplored. Inspired by the notion of surprise as an effective driver of divergent search and its orthogonal nature to novelty this paper investigates the impact of the former to quality diversity performance. For that purpose we introduce three new quality diversity algorithms which employ surprise as a diversity measure, either on its own or combined with novelty, and compare their performance against novelty search with local competition, the state of the art quality diversity algorithm. The algorithms are tested in a robot navigation task across 60 highly deceptive mazes. Our findings suggest that allowing surprise and novelty to operate synergistically for divergence and in combination with local competition leads to quality diversity algorithms of significantly higher efficiency, speed and robustness.
in Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 23, no 4, pp. 603-616, 2019. BibTex
Abstract: Traditional evolutionary algorithms tend to converge to a single good solution, which can limit their chance of discovering more diverse and creative outcomes. Divergent search, on the other hand, aims to counter convergence to local optima by avoiding selection pressure towards the objective. Forms of divergent search such as novelty or surprise search have proven to be beneficial for both the efficiency and the variety of the solutions obtained in deceptive tasks. Importantly for this paper, early results in maze navigation have shown that combining novelty and surprise search yields an even more effective search strategy due to their orthogonal nature. Motivated by the largely unexplored potential of coupling novelty and surprise as a search strategy, in this paper we investigate how fusing the two can affect the evolution of soft robot morphologies. We test the capacity of the combined search strategy against objective, novelty, and surprise search, by comparing their efficiency and robustness, and the variety of robots they evolve. Our key results demonstrate that novelty-surprise search is generally more efficient and robust across eight different resolutions. Further, surprise search explores the space of robot morphologies more broadly than any other algorithm examined.
in Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 2018. BibTex
Abstract: This paper describes a method for generative player modeling and its application to the automatic testing of game content using archetypal player models called procedural personas. Theoretically grounded in psychological decision theory, procedural personas are implemented using a variation of Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) where the node selection criteria are developed using evolutionary computation, replacing the standard UCB1 criterion of MCTS. Using these personas we demonstrate how generative player models can be applied to a varied corpus of game levels and demonstrate how different play styles can be enacted in each level. In short, we use artificially intelligent personas to construct synthetic playtesters. The proposed approach could be used as a tool for automatic play testing when human feedback is not readily available or when quick visualization of potential interactions is necessary. Possible applications include interactive tools during game development or procedural content generation systems where many evaluations must be conducted within a short time span.
IEEE Transactions on Games, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 352-362, 2019. BibTex
Abstract: Divergent search techniques applied to evolutionary computation, such as novelty search and surprise search, have demonstrated their efficacy in highly deceptive problems compared to traditional objective-based fitness evolutionary processes. While novelty search rewards unseen solutions, surprise search rewards unexpected solutions. As a result these two algorithms perform a different form of search since an expected solution can be novel while an already seen solution can be surprising. As novelty and surprise search have already shown much promise individually, the hypothesis is that an evolutionary process that rewards both novel and surprising solutions will be able to handle deception in a better fashion and lead to more successful solutions faster. In this paper we introduce an algorithm that realises both novelty and surprise search and we compare it against the two algorithms that compose it in a number of robot navigation tasks. The key findings of this paper suggest that coupling novelty and surprise is advantageous compared to each search approach on its own. The introduced algorithm breaks new ground in divergent search as it outperforms both novelty and surprise in terms of efficiency and robustness, and it explores the behavioural space more extensively.
In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 2017. BibTex
Abstract: Divergent search is a recent trend in evolutionary computation that does not reward proximity to the objective of the problem it tries to solve. Traditional evolutionary algorithms tend to converge to a single good solution, using a fitness proportional to the quality of the problem's solution, while divergent algorithms aim to counter convergence by avoiding selection pressure towards the ultimate objective. This paper explores how a recent divergent algorithm, surprise search, can affect the evolution of soft robot morphologies, comparing the performance and the structure of the evolved robots.
In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 2017. BibTex
Abstract: Grounded in the divergent search paradigm and inspired by the principle of surprise for unconventional discovery in computational creativity, this paper introduces surprise search as a new method of evolutionary divergent search. Surprise search is tested in two robot navigation tasks and compared against objective-based evolutionary search and novelty search. The key findings of this paper reveal that surprise search is advantageous compared to the other two search processes. It outperforms objective search and it is as efficient as novelty search in both tasks examined. Most importantly, surprise search is, on average, faster and more robust in solving the navigation problem compared to objective and novelty search. Our analysis reveals that surprise search explores the behavioral space more extensively and yields higher population diversity compared to novelty search.
in Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. ACM, 2016. BibTex
Abstract: Is it possible to conduct player modeling without any players? In this paper we use Monte-Carlo Tree Search-controlled procedural personas to simulate a range of decision making styles in the puzzle game MiniDungeons 2. The purpose is to provide a method for synthetic play testing of game levels with synthetic players based on designer intuition and experience. five personas are constructed, representing five different decision making styles archetypal for the game. The personas vary solely in the weights of decision-making utilities that describe their valuation of a set affordances in MiniDungeons 2. By configuring these weights using designer expert knowledge, and passing the configurations directly to the MCTS algorithm, we make the personas exhibit a number of distinct decision making and play styles.
in Proceedings of the AIIDE workshop on Player Modeling, 2015. BibTex
Abstract: The current paper investigates multiple approaches to modeling human decision making styles for procedural play-testing. Building on decision and persona theory we evolve game playing agents representing human decision making styles. Three kinds of agents are evolved from the same representation: procedural personas, evolved from game designer expert knowledge, clones, evolved from observations of human play and aimed at general behavioral replication, and specialized agents, also evolved from observation, but aimed at determining the maximal behavioral replication ability of the representation. These three methods are then compared on their ability to represent individual human decision makers. Comparisons are conducted using three different proposed metrics that address the problem of matching decisions at the action, tactical, and strategic levels. Results indicate that a small gallery of personas evolved from designer intuitions can capture human decision making styles equally well as clones evolved from human play-traces for the testbed game MiniDungeons.
Entertainment Computing. Elsevier Volume 16, 2016, pp. 95–104. BibTex
Abstract: The current paper investigates how to model human play styles. Building on decision and persona theory we evolve game playing agents representing human decision making styles. Two methods are developed, applied, and compared: procedural personas, based on utilities designed with expert knowledge, and clones, trained to reproduce playtraces. Additionally, two metrics for comparing agent and human decision making styles are proposed and compared. Results indicate that personas evolved from designer intuitions can capture human decision making styles equally well as clones evolved from human playtraces.
in Proceedings of the International Conference on Entertainment Computing (ICEC), 2014. BibTex
Abstract: This paper presents a method for modeling player decision making through the use of agents as AI-driven personas. The paper argues that artificial agents, as generative player models, have properties that allow them to be used as psychometrically valid, abstract simulations of a human player's internal decision making processes. Such agents can then be used to interpret human decision making, as personas and playtesting tools in the game design process, as baselines for adapting agents to mimic classes of human players, or as believable, human-like opponents. This argument is explored in a crowdsourced decision making experiment, in which the decisions of human players are recorded in a small-scale dungeon themed puzzle game. Human decisions are compared to the decisions of a number of a priori defined "archetypical" agent-personas, and the humans are characterized by their likeness to or divergence from these. Essentially, at each step the action of the human is compared to what actions a number of reinforcement-learned agents would have taken in the same situation, where each agent is trained using a different reward scheme. finally, extensions are outlined for adapting the agents to represent sub-classes found in the human decision making traces.
in Poster Proceedings of the 9th Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, 2014. BibTex